Geochemical and Geophysical Studies of Cretaceous Coal Deposit of Emewe Efopa, Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Olayinka Y. Ayodeji
Atabo N. Odoma


Proximate and ultimate analysis have been carried out on cretaceous coal samples from Emewe Efopa in the Northern Anambra Basin of Nigeria to determine its mineralogical composition and chemical characteristics. The analysis indicates that the coal, on average, contains 25.5% ash, 6.33% moisture, 27.33% volatile matter, 40.83% fixed carbon. It also contains 0.72% nitrogen, 0.04% phosphorus, 63.92% organic carbon, 0.91% sulphur, 3.25% hydrogen. Geophysical investigation using vertical electrical sounding (schlumberger array) reveals that the study area has six geoelectric layers: sandstone, claystone, shale, coal, claystone, claystone respectively. The coaly layer has a resistivity of 31104Ω. The integration of the different studies carried out in the study area has aid in the ranking of the coal deposits to be a low ranked sub-bituminous type. 

Anambra basin, coals, geochemical analysis, geophysical investigations, sub-bituminous coal.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ayodeji, O. Y., & Odoma, A. N. (2020). Geochemical and Geophysical Studies of Cretaceous Coal Deposit of Emewe Efopa, Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Geological Research, 3(1), 22-34. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Adeleye AM, Ugboaja CY, Yuhong L. Aspects of the hydrocarbon potential of the coals and associated shales and mudstones of the mamu formation in Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2017; 7(7):15.

Agagu OK, Fayose EA, Petters SW. Stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Senonian Anambra Basin of Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 1985;22(1):26–36.

Simpson A. Bull. Geol. Surv. Nigeria. 1955;24:85.

Reyment RA. Aspects of the geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press. 1965; 145.

Murat RC. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the cretaceous and lower tertiary in Southern Nigeria. Nwajide CS, Reijers TJA. NAPE Bull. 1972;11(1): 2332

Obi GC, Okogbue CO, Nwajide CS. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2001;7:321-330.

Oboh-Ikuenobe F, Yepes O, Gregg JM. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and thermal maturation of cretaceous-paleocene sediments from the Cote D’ivoire-Ghana transform margin. In Mascle J, Lohmann GP, Moullade M, (eds.); Proceedings of Occean Drilling Program, Science Results. 1998;159:277-318.

Nwajide C, Reijers TJA. Sequence architecture in outcrops, examples from the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Nigeria Association of Petroleum Explorationist Bull. 1996;11:23-33.

Onyekuru SO, Iwuagwu CJ. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2010;4(12):6623-6640.

Unomah GI, Ekweozor CM. Petroleum source rock assessment of the Campanian Nkporo shale, Lower Benue Trough Nigeria. Nigeria Association of Petroleum Explorationists Bulletin. 1993;8:172-186.

Akaegbobi IM, Schmitt M. Organic facies, hydrocarbon source potential and reconstruction of the depositional paleoenvironment of the campano- maastrichtian nkporo shale in the Cretaceous Anambra Basin; 1998.

Adebayo OF, Ojo AO. Palynostratigraphy of cretaceous deposit of Anambra basin, Eastern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2004; 47(6):417-422.

Chiaghanam OI, Ikegwuonu ON, Chiadikobi KC, Nwozor KK, Ofoma AE, Omoboriowo AO. Sequence stratigraphy and palynological analysis of late campanian to maastrichtian sediments in the upper-cretaceous, Anambra Basin. A Case Study of Okigwe and its Environs, South-Eastern, Nigeria. Advances Applied Science Research. 2012;3(2):962-979.

Obaje NG. Coal petrography, microfossils and paleoenvironments of cretaceous coal measures in the middle benue trough of Nigeria. Tubinger Mikropalaonto-logische Mitteilungen. 1994;11:165.

Fatoye FB, Omada JI, Olatunji JA. Quality assessments and industrial usages of cretaceous okaba coal, Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2012;48(1):81–87.

Obaje NG, Wehner H, Scheeder G, Abubakar MB, Jauro A. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of Nigeria's inland basins: From the viewpoint of organic geochemistry and organic petrology. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 2004;87:325- 353.

Ogala JE, Ola-Buraimo AO, Akaegbobi IM. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2009; 7(12):1566- 1575.

Burke KC, Dewey JF. Oroogeny in Africa. In: Dessavagie TF, Whiteman JAJ. (eds) African Geology, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. 1972;583-608.

Olade MA. Evolution of the Nigerian Benue Trough (Aulacogen): A Tectonic Model. Geol. Mag. 1975;12:5.

Emery K, Uchupi OE, Philips J, Brown C, Masle J. AAPG Bull. 1975;59:2209- 2265.

Whiteman AJ. Nigeria. Its petroleum geology, resources and potential. Graham and Trotman, London, 39p Wright JB, 1968, South Atlantic Continental Drift and the Benue Trough: Tectonophysics. 1982; 6:301-310.

Genik GJ. AAPG Bull. 1993;77:1405-1434.

Ojoh KA. Bull. Centres Rech. Explor- Prod, Elf- Aquaintine. 1990;14: 419-442.

Nwajide CS. Anambra basin of Nigeria: Synoptic basin analysis as a basis for evaluating its hydrocarbon propectivity. In Okogbue CO, (Ed.), Hydrocarbon potentials of the Anambra Basin, PTDF Chair. 2005;2-46.

Nwachukwu SO. The tectonic evolution of the southern portion of the Benue Trough, Nigeria: Geology Magazine. 1972;109: 411-419.

Weber KJ, Dakoru E. Petroleum Geology of the Niger Delta. 9th Petroleum congress. Tokyo. 1975;2:209-221.

Benkhelil J. Benue trough and Benue Chain Geol. Mag. 1982;119:155-168.

Obi GC. Depositional model for the Campanian- Maastrichtian, Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 2000;291.

Obi GC, Okogbue CO, Nwajide CS. Evolution of the Enugu Cuesta: A tectonically driven erosional process. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2001;7:321-330.

Mode AV, Onuoha KM. Global J. App. Sci. 2001;7:103-109

Orajaka IP, Onwuemesi G, Egboka BCE, Nwankor GI. Nigerian Coal. Mining Magazine. 1990;447- 448.

Ward SH. Resistivity and induced polarization methods in geotechnical and environmental geophysics. 1990;1.

Bustin RM, Cameron AR, Greve DA, Kalkreuth WD. Coal petrology. Its principles, methods and applications. Geological Association Canada. Short Course Notes. 5.05: Gaseous Fuels; Coal and Coke. 1985;3:230.

Gray RT, Goscinsky JS, Shoeberger RW. Selection of coals for coke making. Paper presented at joint conference for Iron and Steel Society (ISE) and society for mineral Engineering (AIME). Pittsburgh, Pennsy-lvania; 1978.

Jensen ML, Bateman AM. Economic mineral deposits. 3rd Edition, Revised printing. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. New York. 1982;471-481.

Jauro A, Agho MO, Abayeh OJ, Obaje NG, Abubakar MB. Petrographic studies and coking properties of Lamza, Chikila and Lafia Obi coals of the Benue Trough. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2008; 44(1):37-43.

Peng C. Petrographic characteristics of Chinese coals and their applications in coal utilization processes. Fuel. 2002;81: 11-2.

Blackmore G. Measuring the cost effects of coal quality. 1985;2-3.

Zimmerman RE. Evaluating and testing the coking properties of coal. Miller Freeman, San Francisco. 1979;114.