Lithofacies Analysis and Paleaoenvironment of Deposition of Lokoja Formation, Southern Bida Basin, North Central, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Geological Research,
The sedimentary facies and depositional environment of Lokoja Formation, Southern Bida Basin was evaluated through the study of some of its exposed sections and the samples obtained are subjected to pebbles morphometry and granulometric analsysis. The study area comprises of three (3) litho-facies which are the conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and siltstone/mudstone facies which displayed lithological characteristics, sedimentary structures and textural variation that indicate alluvial deposit which might have prograded through braided streams to nearshore marine conditions. From the pebbles morphometric analysis, the coefficient of flatness indicated that the pebbles are of fluvial origin as it consist of over 90% above fluvial limit. The elongation ratio indicated that the pebbles are of fluvial origin as over 90% has values between 0.6-0.9. Maximum Projection Sphericity Index (MPSI) of the pebbles analysed showed that about 95% were below 0.66 and this indicate beach origin. Oblate Prolate Index (OPI) which ranges from -0.1 – 19.0 show significance of fluvial deposit with minimal beach. From the granulometric analysis, the value of graphic mean ranges from -1.33 to 1.02 and this inferred that the grain size of the sandstone of the Lokoja Formation ranges from medium to very coarse grained. Sorting values ranging from 0.72 to 1.41, these values are indicative of moderate to poor sorting. The skewness values ranges from -1.01 to 0.36 which indicated that the sandstone is nearly symmetrical, strongly fine skewed and strongly coarse skewed. The values of kurtosis ranges from 1.0 to 4.08 which indicated mesokurtic to extremely leptokurtic. The plots of graphic mean and skewness against the standard deviation showed that the study area is dominantly of fluvial origin. Generally it can be conclude that the Lokoja Formation is dominantly of fluvial origin with little beach (marine) influence.
- depositional environment
- Lokoja formation
- Southern Bida Basin
How to Cite
Jones HA.The oolitic ironstones of Agbaja plateau Kabba province Record Geological survey Nigeria1955. 1958:20-43.
Sanni ZJ, Toyin A, Ibrahim A, Ayinla HA. Provenance Studies Through Petrography and Heavy Mineral Analysis of Part of Agbaja-Lokoja Formation, Bida Basin, NW Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science. 2016;18:1:203-212.
Obaje NG, Musa MK, Odoma AN, Hamza H. The Bida Basin in North-Central Nigeria: Sedimentology and Petroleum geology, Journal of Petroleum and Gas Exploration Research. 2011;1(1):001-013.
Udensi EE, Osazuwa IB. Spectral determination of depths to magnetic rocks under the Nupe Basin, Nigeria. NAPE Bull 2004;17:22–27.
Okoro AU, Ezeh HN. Finite Markov Chain Model in Lithofacies Analysis: An Example from the Bida Sandstone, Bida Basin, Nigeria. Global Journal of Geological Sciences. 2010;8:1:1 –23.
Obaje NG, Wehner H, Scheeder G, Abubakar MB, Jauro A. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of Nigeria’s inland basins: from the viewpoint of organic geochemistry and organic petrology. AAPG Bull. 2004;87:325–353
Akande SO, Ojo OJ, Erdtmann BD, Hetenyi M. Paleoenvironments, organic petrology and Rock-Eval studies on source rock facies of the Lower Maastrichtian Patti Formation, southern Bida Basin, Nigeria. J. Afri. Earth Sci. 2005;41:394-406.
Odigi MI. Geochemistry and Geotectonic setting of Migmatitic Gneiss and Amphibolites in the Okene- Lokoja area south western Nigeria. J. Min Geol. 2000;38:81-89.
Imasuen OI, Olatunji JA, Onyeobi TUS. Geological observations of basement rocks, around Ganaja, Kogi State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Geology and Mining. 2013;3(2): 57-66.
Luttig G. The shape of pebbles in the continental, fluviatile and marine facies. Int. Assoc.Scientific Hydrology Pub. 1962; 59:235-258.
Sneed ED, Folk RL. Pebbles in the lower Colorado River, Texas: a study in particle morphogenesis. Journal southern Africa. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa. 1958;77:59-64.
Dobkins JE, Folk RL. Shape development on Tahiti-Nui. J. Sedimentary Petrol. 1970;40:1167-1203.
Sames CW. Morphometric data of some recent pebble associations and their application to ancient deposits. Journal of Sedimentary Petrol. 1966;36:126-142.
Juan Liang, Jian Liu, Gang Xu, Bin Chen, Grain-size characteristics and net transport patterns of surficial sediments in the Zhejiang nearshore area, East China Sea, Oceanologia. 2020;62(1):12-22. ISSN 0078-3234,
Folk RL, Ward WC. Brazos River bar, a study in significance to grain size parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 1957;(30):514-529.
Braide SP. Syntectonic fluvial sedimentation in the central Bida Basin. J Min Geol 1992;28:55–64.
Ojo OJ, Akande SO. Facies relationship and depositional environments of the upper Cretaceous Lokoja Fomation in the Bida Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Minning and Geology 2003;39:39-48.
Hubert JF. Selection and wear of pebbles on Gravel Beach, University of Groningen, Geological Institute Publication. 1968:144.
Moila RJ, Wieser D. Textural parameters; an evaluation, jour. Sed. Petro. 38:435-53A review of the braided - river depositional environments. Earth science Rev. 1968;13:1-62.
Folk RL. A review of grain‐size parameters. Sedimentology. 1966;6(2): 73-93.
Wentworth CK. Method of computing mechanical composition types in sediments. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 1929;40(4):771- 790.
Abstract View: 16 times
PDF Download: 7 times