This study presented laboratory tests on the effects of several mineralizers added to black raw materials, in the manufacture of cement. This manufacturing process is based on crushing quarry limestones with clays and fuels in order to be fired at 1450°C to obtain clinker, the main component of cement. In the case of the Ibity cement industry, the natural materials of Madagascar and the waste from local industries were studied. The main goal of this study was to find the best mineralizer that could reduce the thermal energy expended in the formation of clinker while improving its quality. In order to realize this, four different temperature values were applied namely 1250°C, 1350°C, 1400°C and 1450°C. In addition, it was added 1% and 4% of these mineralizers to the white raw materials used and three different qualities of the raw material, a, b and c were used respectively, as controls. The Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) is the performance indicator that indicates the quality level of these raw materials.
With these evaluation criteria, the characteristics of each of these mineralizers also helped us to detect their efficiencies. The glass used comes from the waste of local industries and it is a material rich in amorphous silica which reacts easily under the effect of temperature. Industrial ash is rich in crystalline silica, which prevents its reactivity. Pozzolan is one of the most accessible materials at the industry but possesses poor thermal conductivity despite the presence of reactive silicas while Sulfogypsum 1033 and 1034 are respectively rich in iron oxide and sulphur trioxide. They are responsible for the melting properties in the reaction of clinker formations.
At only 1350°C, our tests with Sulfogypsum (1033 and 1034) gave us the best results. At the low temperature used in the furnaces, the additions of mineralizers allowed the vintages to surpass the quality in front of the control. They will later be able to optimize the compressive strength of the cement, given the high C3S value observed in the experiments. As for other mineralizers, their reactivity requires other conditions that will be the subject of another study.
Aims: A 3-D resistivity survey was carried out in Igbesa area and its environs, a sedimentary terrain of South-western Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: The wenner alpha electrode configuration was engaged throughout this study. Ten profiles were covered; each profile 25 metres apart. A 3-D square grid was generated using parallel 2-D lines. Five transverse lines were in the North –South direction and the others in the West –East direction.
Results and Discussion: An inverse model resistivity value that utilises the smoothness constrained least-squares inversion of RES3DINV software was used. Seven iterations were undertaken and this produces an RMS error of 21.5%. The high RMS error is attributed largely to resistivity variation obtained from the lithological materials within the study area.
Conclusion: From the results obtained, clay was suspected only in a small portion in the east of the first layer which was approximately about 2.50m deep. Associated materials like clayey sand and lateritic clay were delineated at the surface to the third layer (i.e., a depth of approximately 9.0m), and at the surface to the fourth layer (i.e. a depth of about 17.0m) respectively.
Sedimentary rocks cuttings from two boreholes in Bingerville and Assinie (Côte d’Ivoire) were the subject of this study.
Sands and clays were collected from the Bingerville well and sands, green clays and limestones from the Assinie well.
The main objective of this work is to make an inventory of the plant species that existed at the time of the deposition of sediments on both sides of the lagoon fault based on palynomorph fossils.
Paleovegetation consisted of freshwater species such as (determined spores Verrucatosporites usmensis, Laevigatosporites ovatus,Polypodiaceiosporites regularis,and Deltoidospora delicata), which thrieved in a coastal wetland environment under a tropical climate with alternating warm and humid periods. Palynostratigraphic analyzses point to the age of the Upper Eocene and the Lower Miocene for the studied samples.
Granulometric analysis of sampled sands along Port bouet coastline, during both periods (turbulent and calm periods), shows a wide particle size spectrum ranging from fine sand to very coarse sand. It should be noted, however, that the coarse fraction is largely predominant, particularly in channel proximity. This trend continues during both periods, caused by a grain size selection resulting from west-east direction coastal drift. Study of heavy minerals shows a very uniform mineralogical cortege, largely dominated by quartz, biotite and feldspaths. These minerals would come essentially from erosion of continental shelf granites. They are distributed along the coast by a coastal drift in a west-east direction. Study of sands transport mechanisms, collected on Port Bouet coast during the two seasons, May and November shows three modes of transportation: loading for very coarse sands, saltation for medium and coarse sands, and suspension for finer particles. Saltation is the mode of transport that predominates in all sectors, regardless of the observation period. Rates vary between 80 and 90% depending on the sector. Sediments transported by suspension and loading generally do not reach 12%.
An integrated 3D seismic data, checkshot data and suite of well logs for nine wells in “OYA” field, Offshore, Niger Delta were analyzed for reservoir characterization, 3D static modeling and volumetric analysis. This study is majorly in two folds: the first focuses on the application of 3D static model by incorporating all the geologic characteristics within subsurface volume that are relatively stable over long periods of time for optimization and development of hydrocarbon potentials in “OYA” field while the use of seismic attributes to map and identify new prospects that can be possibly explored in the same field. Geological structural and property models (net to gross, porosity, permeability, and water saturation) were distributed stochastically within the constructed 3D grid using the method of Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithms. Depth structural maps and seismic attribute maps generated shows the trapping mechanisms to be a fault assisted anticlinal closure and four way closures while new hydrocarbon prospects were delineated respectively. The result (output) of the 3D static model was used to carry out volumetric analysis which divided the three reservoirs (Sand 1, 2 and 3) into two zones; the first zone [sand 1- sand 2(surface depths)] with a STOIIP of 4.93344*106 Stock tank barrel of recoverable oil while the second zone [sand 2-sand 3 (surface depths)] have a STOIIP value of 500369*106 Stock tank barrel of recoverable oil. This research work has demonstrated how new hydrocarbon prospects can be further explored in the field. 3D static geologic models and volumetric analysis of evaluated reservoirs in the already drilled wells shows evidence of good hydrocarbon yield in the field of study.